Bailey, Booth, interviewed by Julie Etchegaray, March 1, 2001.
Booth Bailey, my Great Uncle, told me about what it was like to be a soldier placed at ground zero at the time of the atmospheric testing.
Etchegaray, Mary Jean, interviewed by Julie Etchegaray, March 14, 2001.
Mrs. Etchegaray, my Grandmother, shared what she remembered living on a ranch out of Eureka, NV.
Etchegaray, Pietrina Damele, interviewed by Julie Etchegaray, March 10, 2001.
I learned, from this interview, what it was like on a ranch that was about 150 to 200 miles away from the testing site. Mrs. Pietrina Etchegaray is my Great Grandmother.
Etcheverry, Jerry, interviewed by Julie Etchegaray, January 9, 2001.
This interview told me about what it was like to be herding sheep at that time in history. Mr. Etcheverry is my Great Uncle.
Marshall, William C, interviewed by Julie Etchegaray, February 18, 2001.
Owned and was living at the Siri Ranch, Eureka County, NV at the time. He talked about the children at the ranch school having to wear radiation detection buttons and about cattle out of Alamo, NV, coming into the ranch with white spots on their backs. William C. Marshall is my Grandfather.
Titus, Senator A. Costandina, interviewed by Julie Etchegaray, March 15, 2001.
Senator Titus is the author of Bombs in the Backyard and is an associate professor of political science at the University of Las Vegas in Nevada. She told me about why she decided to write this book, and how she currently is involved with the nuclear issue.
Uhalde, Gracian N, interviewed by Julie Etchegaray, February 22, 2001.
Mr. Uhalde had first hand knowledge of the affects of radioactive fallout on wildlife and livestock as he lives on a down wind ranch. He is also a "downwinder" cancer survivor.
Uhalde, Helen, interviewed by Julie Etchegaray, March 1, 2001
Mrs. Uhalde told me about what it was like to live on a down wind ranch at the time of the first atmospheric testing in Nevada.
American Chemical Society. Chemical and Engineering News. http://pubs.acs.org/hotartcl/cenear/950717/art02.html.
Chemists recall their work on the Manhattan Project, the first atomic bomb test, and the ethics of using the bomb against Japan.
"Atomic Energy." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1970 ed.
A defined Atomic Energy in depth, subcategories were the atomic bomb and the hydrogen bomb.
"Compensation Bill OK'd." http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/text/2000/oct/13/510900712.html.
Article on Senate Bill providing compensation to former nuclear bomb builders and testers exposed to radiation.
"Damage Due to the Atomic Bomb." http://hiroshima.tomato.nu/English/park_ma/morgue_w14.html.
Dyson, J.D. "Documentation and Diagrams of the Atomic Bomb." Out Law Labs. http://serendipity.magnet.ch/more/atomic.html.
The information contained in this document began with the history of the Atomic Bomb including development (The Manhattan Project), detonation (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, by products of Atomic detonation, break down at the Atomic blast zone), nuclear fission and nuclear fusion explanations. The mechanism of the bomb: altimeter, air pressure detonator, detonating heads, conventional explosive charges, neutron deflector, uranium and plutonium lead shield, and fuses. Diagrams of both the uranium and plutonium bombs.
Eckles, Jim. Building the Bomb. http://www.dtic.mil/soldiers/july95/p29.html.
This following information was available at this site: the goal of the Manhattan Project, the lead scientist's name: Dr. Robert J. Oppenheimer, a simple explanation of an atomic explosion, explanation of the simulated atomic blast on May 7, 1945 using TNT, simple explanation of the first atomic test on July 16, 1945 at 5:29:45 mountain war time, first hand description by Hans Berthe, a contributing scientist of the blast, the fact that the army kept the test a secret by announcing that an ammunition dump had exploded, the true story was released August 6, 1945 and today the test blast crater no longer exists but is marked by a lava Obelisk.
"Globe-How the Bomb Works." http://wso.williams.edu/~globe/buildbom.htm.
This site provides a simplified scientific explanation of the atomic fission bomb, with clear illustration of the kind of uranium bomb used on Hiroshima.
"Hiroshima." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1970 ed.
An overview of Hiroshima, Japan.
"Killing Our Own." http://www.ratical.org/radiation/KillingOurOwn/k003.html.
Compilations of first person accounts of radiation effects on people witnessing atomic tests and living within the fallout zone. Also a history of the Government's (Atomic Energy Commission) public relations claims that neither the detonations nor the fallout were harmful.
Kroff, Sarge A. "The Geiger-Mueller Counter." The Book of Popular Science. Volume 9. New York: Grolier Incorporated. 1963.
An explanation of the Geiger-Mueller counter, better know as the Geiger counter.
Lapp, Ralph E. "Perils of the Atomic Age." The Book of Popular Science. Volume 9. New York: Grolier Incorporated. 1963.
Simplified explanation of atomic energy and radioactivity, also a simplified explanation of an atomic blast and its perils.
McCracken, Robert D. A History of Beatty Nevada. Tonopah, Nevada: Nye County Press. 1992.
A part of the Nye county town history project. Beatty came to life again with the atomic testing work at the Nevada Test Site.
"Minutes of the Second Meeting of the Target Committee, Los Alamos, May 10-11, 1945." http://www.dannen.com/decision/targets.html.
A summary of the Target Committee on May 10 and 11, 1945 with a listing of scientists present.
"Nagasaki." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1970 ed.
An overview of Nagasaki, Japan.
"Nevada Test Site." http://oz.net/~Chrisp/nts.htm.
"Nevada Test Site." Area 51 Research Center. http://www.ufomind.com/area51/orgs/nts/.
A general description of the Nevada Test Site with an extensive listing of external links regarding the Nevada Test Site.
"Nuclear Engineering." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1970 ed.
In depth description of nuclear engineering. Explanation of special techniques developed to solve unique problems encountered in dealing with nuclear fission.
"Orrin Hatch, United Stated Senator for Utah." www.senate.gov/~hatch/press266.html.
A press release on Senator Orrin Hatch introducing two bills that will fully fund the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Trust Fund for Fiscal year 2001 and beyond.
"The Franck Report." http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Franck.shtml.
This web site gave me information on the Franck Report, a petition signed by 68 members of the Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago.
Titus, A. Costandina. Bombs In The Backyard. Reno, Nevada: University of Nevada Press. 1986.
Examines the history and politics of our countries atmospheric atomic testing and the ongoing questions of government liability for alleged victims of that practice.
Truman, Harry S. Diary. July 25, 1945. http://www.dannen.com/decision/hst-jl25.html.
Quotes from President Harry S. Truman's private diary regarding Truman's apparent belief that he had dropped the bomb of a "Purely military" target.
United States. Atomic Energy Commission. Atomic Tests in Nevada. 1957.
Public Relations publication developed to alleviate fears of Nevada residents relating to atmospheric atomic testing.
United States. Atomic Energy Commission. Location of Proving Ground for Atomic Weapons. AEC Memo 141/7. 13 Dec. 1950.
Memo from AEC's director of military application outlining logistical requirements for a mainland site for nuclear testing.
United States. Department of Energy. Device Assemble Facility, Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy. March 2000.
United States. Department of Energy. Guide to Frenchman Flat. U.S. Department of Energy. August 1999.
This was published for the employees of the U.S. Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office, it's contractors and members of the public. This publication contained maps, timelines of nuclear tests, and pictures of specific sites within NTS.
United States. Department of Energy. Guide to Frenchman and Yucca Flats. U.S. Department of Energy. no date provided.
History of tests and facilities on Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat as well as data and facts regarding drilling, craters, preparation to conduct a test, balloon shots, and test area names and numbers.
United States. Department of Energy. The Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy. January 2001.
United States. Department of Energy. U1a Complex Subcritical Experiments, Nevada Test Site. January 2001.
Introduction of an underground laboratory of horizontal tunnels accessible by a vertical shaft. A nuclear test was conducted in a horizontal tunnel attached in 1990.
U.S. News and World Report. 15 Aug, 1960. "Leo Szilard, Interview: President Truman Did Not Understand." http://www.peak.org/~danneng/decision/usnews.html.
United States. 97th Congress. 1 April, 1982: H.R. 6052 Atomic Bomb Fallout Compensation Act of 1982.
A bill to amend title 28, United States Code, to provide a remedy against the United States for damages to certain individuals resulting from nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site, and for other purposes. Introduced by Representative Marriott, 04/01/82.
United States. 97th Congress. 15 July, 1981: S. 1483 Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1981.
Introduced by Senator Orrin Hatch, 7/15/1981, a bill to amend title 28, of the United States code to make the United States liable for damages to certain individuals, to certain uranium miners, and to certain sheep herds, due to certain nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site or employment in a uranium mine for other purposes.
United States. 101st Congress. 19 April, 1990: National Atmospheric Nuclear Testing Compensation Act of 1990.
Amends the Public Health Service Act to establish the National Atmospheric Nuclear Testing Compensation Program to pay for injuries or death from radiation from nuclear testing and uranium mining. Introduced by Senator Orrin Hatch 4/19/1990.
United States. 101st Congress. 19 April, 1989: S. 481 Radiation Exposure Compensation Act.
Establishes in the Treasury the Atmospheric Nuclear Testing Compensation Trust Fund for claims for injuries and death due to exposure to radiation from nuclear testing and uranium mining in specified States. RECA was introduced by Senator Orrin Hatch 04/19/89.
United States. 106th Congress. 5 August, 1999: S. 1515.
Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2000 - Amends the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act to revise eligibility requirements for claims relating to: (1) atmospheric nuclear testing and leukemia; (2) uranium mining as it pertains to individuals employed in the transport of uranium ore or vanadium-uranium ore and additional designated eligible State sites; (3) written documentation of pertinent diagnoses; (4) determination and payment of claims; (5) application of Native American law and Native American considerations to claims; and (6) resubmittal of previously denied claims. Sponsored by Senator Orrin Hatch, 8/05/1999, became Public Law No: 106-245 on 7/10/2000.
United States. 107th Congress. 1 March, 2001: S. 448. Paul Hicks Memorial Act.
To provide permanent appropriations to the Radiation Exposure Compensation Trust Fund to make payments under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act. Introduced by Senator Domenici (for himself and Senator Hatch) March 1,2001.
United States. 107th Congress. 20 March, 2001: H.R. 1131. Paul Hicks Memorial Act.
To provide permanent appropriations to the Radiation Exposure Compensation Trust Fund to make payments under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act. Introduced by Represenetive Udall of New Mexico (for himself, Mr. Udall of Colorado, and Mr. Matheson) March 20,2001.
United States. 107th Congress. 1 March, 2001: S. 449. Radiation Exposure Compensation Trust Fund. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/multidb.cgi.
To ensure the timely payment of benefits to eligible persons under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act. Introduced by Senator Domenici (for himself and Senator Hatch) March 1st, 2001.
United States. 107th Congress. 13 March, 2001: H.R. 996. Radiation Exposure Compensation Trust Fund. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/multidb.cgi.
To ensure the timely payment of benefits to eligible persons under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act. Introduced by Representative McInnis March 13, 2001.
United States. 107th Congress. 20 March, 2001: H.R. 1132. Radiation Exposure Compensation Trust Fund. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/multidb.cgi.
To ensure the timely payment of benefits to eligible persons under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act. Introduced by Representative Udall of New Mexico (for himself, Mr. Udall of Colorado, and Mr. Matheson) March 20,2001.