Appendix A

REFERENCES, annotated

1. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Freight-Rail Bottom Line Report, 2005.

2. American Association of Railroads, Class 1 Railroad Statistics, (

3. Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and Trainmen (BLET), "Becoming an Engineer," on website,

4. Desert Research Institute, Western Regional Climate Center, Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary, Rand Ranch, Palisade, Nevada

Weather records, 1956-1981. 5. Dunham, Steve, "Securing Rail Freight," Journal of Homeland Security, February, 2003. Article about challenges faced by American railroads in addressing security issues. Includes description of specific steps taken by Union Pacific to improve security. 6. Dunne, Thomas, and Luna B. Leopold, Water in Environmental Planning, W. H. Freeman and Co, 1978.

General information on flood events.

7. Elko Daily Free Press

Newspaper reports on local rail accidents.

8. Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Safety Analysis website (

Information on reported rail accidents, highway/rail crossing incidents, and casualties in Eureka County, 1975-2005.

9. Federal Railroad Administration, Safety Compliance Oversight Plan for Rail Transportation of High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel, June, 1998.

This planning document was primarily prepared to guide FRA oversight of the rail shipment of foreign research reactor fuel, and secondarily to lay out FRA oversight activiites for the shipment of SNF and HLRW to Yucca Mountain. The document lays out various planning, inspection, training, and oversight activities that FRA will undertake in these shipment campaigns.

10. Finkelstein, Robert, Special Assistant, Director for Safety Analysis, Federal Railroad Administration, Washington, D.C.

Information regarding railroad safety and railroad accident reporting system.

11. Forward Through the 90s: Selected Issues in the Transportation by Rail of Hazardous Materials: Report to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House Committee on Energy and Commerce. Washington, DC: US Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, 1994. 205 p.

A report from the Federal Railroad Adminstration to Congress regarding the shipment of hazardous waste by rail: law, policies, issues, history.

12. Garro, Nick, Conductor (retired), Union Pacific Railroad.

Information about train crews, crew responsibilities, train operations, crew training and experience

13. Hamberger, Edward R., President and Chief Executive Officer, Association of American Railroads, "Transportation of Spent Rods to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Storage Facility," testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittees on Highway and Ttransit and Railroads of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, April 25, 2002.

This testimony by the CEO of the Association of American Railroads is a discussion of the safety and security advantages of shipping SNF by dedicated trains.

14. Halstead, Bob, Fred Dilger, PhD and Dave Ballard, PhD, The Curious History of Transportation Planning for HLW Repositories in the US

Background, history, and timeline of HLW transportation planning.

15. Hill, C.V., et al, The Nevada Railroad System: Physical, Operational, and Accident Characteristics, , U.S. Department of Energy, prepared under Contract #DE-AC08-87NV10576, September, 1991. This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. This report is in two parts: a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system, and a detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics. 16. Impact Assessment Report on Proposed Shipments of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste through Eureka County, Nevada - Prepared for the Board of Eureka County Commissioners, August 2001.

17. Kanigher, Steve, "Moving Deadly Cargo," Las Vegas Sun, October 10, 2004.

Overview of current rail safety issues in Nevada and nationwide in relation to HLW transport.

18. Kerr, Peter, Operations Research Analyst, Federal Railroad Administration, washington, D.C.

Information regarding railroad operations and gross tonnage.

19. Las Vegas Sun, "DOE: Trains destined for Yucca would only carry nuclear waste," July 19, 2005.

20. Lee, Tze-San, and Christopher Saricks, Significant Factors in Rail Freight Accidents: A Statistcal Analysis of Predicitve and Severity Indices in the FRA Accident/Incident Database, Argonne National Laboratory, 1991.

In this study a five-year time series of carrier-submitted data on mainline railroad accidents was investigated for statistical propoerties related to relationships among and relative importance of key variables, and for accident predictability.

21. Lunsten, Carsten S. Railroad Rules, Signaling, and Operations: North American Signaling Basics, 1998. (

Concise description of North American railroad signaling systems.

22. "Map of the Month: Union Pacific Traffic," Trains Magazine, July, 2004, Kalmbach Publishing Company.

Map showing average traffic day throughout UPRR system in late 2003.

23. Marshall, Laurel, Program Coordinator, Eureka County Yucca Mountain Information Office.

Photographs and descriptions of May, 2005 Humboldt River flood and Carlin derailment.

24. Moore, Richard C, P.E.

Review of draft report, clarification, and information regarding FRA and Nevada safety inspection programs, information regarding dedicated trains.

25. Moore, Richard C, P.E. Eureka County Hazardous Materials Emergency Response: Hazardous Materials Team Requirements and Evacuation Planning, prepared for the Board of Eureka County Commissioner, April, 2003.

26. Nevada Department of Transportation, Annual Traffic Report, 2003.

27. Nevada Department of Transportation, Vehicle Classification, 2003.

28. Nevada Department of Transportation, Annual Speed Monitoring Report, 2003.

29. Nevada Department of Transportation, Annual Vehicle Occupancy Monitoring Program Report, January 1, 2003 - December 31, 2003.

30. Nevada Department of Transportation District III Elko and Ely sub-District

31. Nevada Department of Transportation, Facts and Figures, 2005.

32. Nevada Department of Transportation, Nevada Traffic Crashes, 2002.

33. Nevada Department of Transportation, Nevada Railplan, 1992, 1996.

34. Nevada Department of Transportation, State Highway Preservation Report, 2001.

35. Nevada Department of Transportation, Nevada's State Maintained Highways Descriptions, Index & Maps, 2003.

36. Nevada Division of Water Resources, Humboldt River Chronology: An Overview and Chronological History of the Humboldt River and Related Water Issues, 2000.

Information about the Humboldt River watershed.

37. Nevada Facts;

38. Nevada Facts; Nevada Travel Network Guide to Nevada,

39. Nevada State Emergency Response Commission website

Description of the agency's mission and responsibilities.

40. Paulson, R.W., Chase, E.B., Roberts, R.S., and Moody, D.W., Compilers, National Water Summary 1988-89-- Hydrologic Events and Floods and Droughts: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2375, excerpted in USGS webpage, "Major Floods and Droughts in Nevada"

41. Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Office of Hazardous Materials Safety website .(

Hazardous materials incident data, 1993-2005.

42. PHMSA, Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook

Identification of hazardous materials, incident response procedures.

43. Primak, Dave, Railroad Motive Power Equipment Safety Specialist, Nevada Public Utilities Commission, phone interview.

Information about Nevada PUC safety inspection program.

44. Rocky Mountain Region Timetable 7, Colorado, Utah & Nevada , Altamont Press, 2005.

This timetable, desinged for "railfans" (train hobbyists) shows all rail routes in the three states. While not an official railroad employee timetable, it does show some of the information shown in those timetables.

45. Saricks, Christopher, Argonne National Laboratory.

Information regarding 1991 statistical analysis of rail freight accidents.

46. State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects website (

Bibliography of nuclear waste-related transportation studies.

47. Steele, Craig, Manager, Safety and Quality Assurance, Public Utilities Commission of Nevada.

Information regarding Nevada PUC's railroad safety inspection program.

48. Surface Transportation Board, Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration, Rail Rate Index, "Rail Rates Continue Multi-Year Decline," December, 2000.

Table showing railroad ton miles, 1984-1999, in the western United States.

49. Train Hits Chemical Truck at Beowawe," Eureka County Yucca Mountain Information Office Newsletter, Summer, 2003.

50. Turk, Tom, Battalion Chief, Eureka County.

Information regarding wildland fires possibly caused by rail operations.

51. Union Pacific Corporation website (

Names and addresses of company contacts; general background on UP operations in Nevada; information on safety and hazardous waste transport.

52. Union Pacific Corporation, 2003 Analyst Fact Book.

General information regarding UPRR operations.

53. Union Pacific Corporation, 2004 Annual Report .

General information regarding UPRR operations.

54. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), "Policy Statement for Use of Dedicated Trains for Nuclear Waste Shipment to Yucca Mountain" July, 2005.

55. U.S. Department of Energy, Transportation External Coordination Working Group, Rail Topic Group Rail Routing - Current Practices for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Waste Shipments, and a Comparative Analysis of Highway Regulatory Guidelines Applied to Rail, A Discussion Paper, July, 2004.

56. U.S. Department of Energy, Transportation External Coordination Working Group, Rail Topic Group, Rail and Highway Regulations Relative to the Transportation of Radioactive Materials and Their Applicability to States, Tribes, Shippers, and Carriers , Version 1.0-July, 1998.

This is a matrix showing information on the regulatory structure of railroads and hazardous waste shipments on railroads, including applicable sections of the Code of Federal Regulations.

57. U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) , Research and Special Programs Administration, Identification of Factors for Selecting Modes and Routes for Shipping High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spend Nuclear Fuel, April 1998.

58. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emergency Response Program webpage,

Information on federal government's emergency hazardous waste spill response and notification system.

59. U.S. Geological Survey, Real-time data, USGS10322500, Humboldt R. at Palisade, Nevada ( )

Stream gauge readings for Humboldt River at Palisade Nevada.

60. "Union Pacific Railroad," The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2005, Columbia University Press

Short history of Union Pacific Railroad.

61. Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB), Rail Primer: Legal, Technical and Business Aspects of Rail Transportation, Revised November 1995.

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